Write a 4 page essay on Learning and Hopefield Networks.
Synapses are essential to transmission of nerve impulses and have, at many occasions, been associated with learning and memory. Synapses play a vital role in the operation of memory since they connect various neurons in the nervous network. The audio-visual centers of the brain work coherently in order to connect the voice that we hear with the associated face. More and more synapses are formed, that connect various nerve cells in the nervous network thereby allowing faster and seamless flow of information throughout the neural pathway. If we hear a similar sound in the future, our brain functions to display the images of the associated individual’s face that had been stored in the memory (Jones, Frosbery, Taylor, and Gregory, 2007). This is how the biological system within the human body works to transfer information and make connections with different bits of related information.
Hopfield (1982) proposed a model of artificial networks comprising of neurons, which is now referred to as the Hopfield networks. The mathematical or computational model is inspired from the biological workings of neural networks present within the human body. These artificial neurons are interconnected thereby forming a dense network consisting of N number of neurons, with weight wi and an output, which is regulated till neural upgrading. By using a value for the input xi, a weighted sum is calculated. If the weighted sum is greater than 0 or 1 then the output is ascribed a positive value but if the weighted sum is less than 0, then the output is ascribed a negative value. The output status is maintained until it is upgraded again via synchronous or asynchronous updating. The weight matrix plays a significant part in this as it represents the collection of weight magnitudes from nodes j to i of the neural network. In terms of logic programming, Hopfield networks are asynchronous. Meaning, the neurons update its state deterministically (Sathasivam and Abdullah, 2008). In