Write 18 page essay on the topic How to Learn a Language Apart from Rote Memorization.
Various theories have been conceptualized on language learning. . According to the behaviorist view propagated by Skinner, an individual is reinforced (positively or negatively) for responses to various stimuli, hence, the external environment plays a great part in the formation of behaviors. . By administering positive reinforcement such as praising or smiling when the desired behavior (language learning) occurs and administering negative reinforcement such as scolding or correcting when an undesired behavior occurs, one is assumed to encourage the desired behavior and make it more likely that that behavior will recur (Lindfors, 1987). . Hence, language is learned with the mechanism of rewards and punishments. . For example, if one is able to memorize words and their vocabulary meaning, then he gets rewarded with a high grade. . On the other hand, if he fails to memorize the words, then he fails the test. . A major criticism of the Skinnerian theory of language is that it is primarily a psychology of the production of language rather than of the reception of language. It talks about how people learn to produce language but it says little about how people learn to understand it (Carroll, 1962). Lightbrown & Spada (2006) agree that language learners do not simply internalize a great list of imitated and memorized sentences” (p.183). . They need to learn ways on how others will be able to understand them better.
According to Ausubel’s Cognitive Learning theory, meaningful processes of associating new information to already known concepts bring about learning. . Ausubel contrasts rote learning from meaningful learning in that rote learning is the acquisition of material as “discrete and relatively isolated entities that are relatable to cognitive structure only in an arbitrary and verbatim fashion, not permitting the establishment of meaningful relationships”. . On the other hand, meaningful learning is a process that relates to and establishes new information learned to relevant past knowledge and experiences. . “Ausubel’s theory of learning has important implications for second language learning and teaching.