When using a Venn diagram to analyze a syllogism with the traditional view of existential import, universal propositions are marked by:

a.placing two Xs somewhere in the circle belonging to the subject term

b.shading out the entire circle belonging to the subject term

c.shading part of the circle belonging to the subject term, and then placing one or two Xs elsewhere

d.shading out the entire circle belonging to the predicate term

e.placing an X somewhere in the circle belonging to the subject term, and another X somewhere in the circle belonging to the predicate term