60. Total Customer Value = Perceptions of Benefits minus ______________.
a) Total manufacturing costs
b) Total marketing costs
c) Total cost of ownership
d) Total operational costs
61. The resource-based theory of competitive advantage emphasizes on ________________ as the
foundation for developing competitive advantage.
a) the organization’s resources and capabilities.
b) the in-house technologies and cost efficiency.
c) the organization’s level of productivity and international experience.
d) the organization’s unique processes and leadership.
62. The ways in which organizations discharge their moral and ethical responsibilities is increasingly
being scrutinized because:
a) consumers are becoming more knowledgeable in new technologies.
b) the economic activities of many multinational organizations impact on the lives of global
citizens and the physical environments.
c) international institutions such as the World Trade Organizations are not making sufficient
efforts in these issues.
d) multinational organizations have specifically demand more scrutiny in their global business
63. Which of the following is not a benefit of using the new electronic media in international
a) Giving customers and other stakeholders the option on how and when information is
available to them.
b) New electronic media enable the capturing, storage and analysis of information on
customers and their behaviour.
c) Due to increase of electronic communication, it inevitably creates more wasteful, unwanted
and unselective advertising.
d) It facilitates the building of long-term satisfying relations with key stakeholders.
64. The new product development process involves a number of stages. The best estimate of the
new product’s likely profitability is likely to be made at which of these stages?
a) Idea generation
b) Idea evaluation
c) Market testing
65. Why may some consumers of a service be dissatisfied even though the supplier offers a
relatively high standard of service?
a) Because the price is too low.
b) Because there are too few tangible cues to assess the service.
c) Because the consumer had a lower level of expectations.
d) Because the consumer had a higher level of expectations.
66. An organization embarks on an international product strategy depending on a decision on a
number of factors, which include:
a) the overall market objectives
b) market and customer expectations
c) marketing mix support
d) all of the above
67. At which stage in the International Trade Cycle does a country usually import foreign goods?
a) Introduction stage
b) Growth stage
c) Maturity stage
d) Saturation stage
68. To have value, a brand must offer which one of the following?
a) A simple product range with a defined set of features.
b) A complex product range with a defined set of features.
c) Consistency, a reduced level of perceived risk for the buyer, and a range of functional and
emotional attributes which are of value to buyers.
d) An identity through which the customer can trace the party responsible for supplying the
69. Choosing a suitable international brand name is an important, but often difficult, part of the
process that creates a strong and distinctive brand. Which of the following statements about
choosing a name for a new soft drink is UNTRUE?
a) The name should be memorable and easy to pronounce.
b) The name must be checked by experts to ensure it doesn’t infringe on another company’s
c) The name should have positive associations with the benefits and features of the product.
d) The brand name must be modern and contemporary.