There are different interpretations of the historic numbered Treaties of Canada.

There are different interpretations of the historic numbered Treaties of Canada. The federal government has 

their own interpretations of the Treaty agreements and First Nations have their own understandings of what 

was negotiated with the British Crown. As an example, Treaty #4 was signed in 1874 near where the 

current town of Fort Qu’Appelle is located. A few years after Treaty #4 was signed, Chief Paskwa, one of 

the signatories of Treaty #4 decided to created a document that was intended for Queen Victoria of England 

(Queen Victoria has often been referred to by First Nations as the Queen Mother as she was the reigning 

monarch of England during the early Indian Treaty period.) “Chief Paskwa created a document of his own,

in the form of a pictograph based on what he was told by an interpreter, says Delbert Pasqua. Delbert 

Pasqua is a direct descendant of Chief Paskwa and is in charge of deciphering the images that were put to 

paper. [Chief Paskwa] didn’t understand them, he had to take the interpreter’s word that this is what [the 

Crown] meant, what they were promising,” (CBC News, March 26, 2017)

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/saskatchewan/delbert-pasqua-decipher-pictograph-1.4041710

Question #1: 

a) what was Chief Paskwa trying to communicate to Queen Victoria of England about 

Treaty #4? 

b) interpret some of the symbols that Chief Paskwa used in his pictograph? 

c) support your answers