The diagnosis of tuberculosis involves the observation of lung structures called tubercles on an X ray.

The diagnosis of tuberculosis involves the observation of lung structures called tubercles on an X ray.

The diagnosis of tuberculosis involves the observation of lung structures called tubercles on an X ray.

 

  1. What immunologic process leads to the formation of tubercles, and what type of immune cells may comprise these lesions?

2. Individuals who smoke have much higher rates of lung infection. Explain which first-line defenses mechanisms may be impaired by smoking, allowing pathogens to more readily enter the lower respiratory tract.

3. Explain how super-antigens, such as toxic shock syndrome toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus, often lead to the development of life-threatening symptoms in an infected individual.

4. Provide an explanation in support of or refuting the following statement: Humans would never develop natural immunity to a novel biological agent created in a laboratory

Ref.: Cowan, M. K. (2014) (4th Ed.). Microbiology: A Systems Approach, McGraw Hill

 

 

……………….Answer Preview………………

Introduction

Microbiology has evolved with time and it now tries to explain various microorganisms and their effects on man, how these microorganisms are contracted and how the body the body works to fight them through the various immunities that…..

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.