- Questions 1 – 5 are based on the passage below and chapter 12 content:
- Leukemia is a term that describes a wide variety of blood cell cancers. Most leukemia cases involve elevated leukocyte counts. In acute cases of leukemia, immature leukocytes proliferate quickly, which leads to many abnormal immature cells in the bone marrow. This inhibits the ability of the bone marrow to produce healthy new leukocytes. This form of the cancer progresses rapidly, and the cells metastasize easily as they move into the bloodstream from the bone marrow. It can be fatal within weeks or months if not treated promptly. In contrast, chronic cases of leukemia typically involve the proliferation of abnormal mature leukocytes. This form of the disease progresses more slowly, and treatment need not always be immediate.
- Once classified as acute or chronic, leukemia can be further subdivided into lymphocytic or myelogenous. This distinction depends on which type of leukocyte is abnormal in the patient. In lymphocytic leukemia, the lymphoid cells, such as the lymphocytes, are abnormal. In the myelogenous form, the myeloid cells, such as basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils, are affected.
- Chemotherapy drugs are often used in the management of leukemia cases. There are numerous categories of these drugs, and they have varied mechanisms of action. In treatment, several drugs are used in combination because some of the drugs are cell-cycle specific while others are not. Alkylating agents are capable of disrupting the function of DNA. Tubulin-binding agents are designed to interfere with microtubule formation. Other drugs are designed to interfere with DNA polymerase, DNA repair mechanisms, or protein synthesis, or to act as purine analogs. Many of these drugs cannot enter into the brain when injected or ingested, so if the cancer has spread to this area, special methods must be used to introduce the drugs to the brain.
- Not all abnormal cells are cancer cells. When abnormal cells have __________ and can continuously ________ they are considered cancer cells.
- a.mutated …. grow
- b.transformed …. divide
- c.divided …. die
- d.grown …. transcribe
- e.translated …. transform
- Which of the following best describes the results of a cancer cell that bypasses the M phase checkpoint?
- a.The cell fails to enter the cell cycle.
- b.Chromosomes are replicated more quickly.
- c.Daughter cells have damaged or incomplete genomes.
- d.The cell undergoes apoptosis.
- e.Concentration of PDGF declines in the cell.
- Which of the following is a symptom of chronic cases of lymphocytic leukemia?
- a.Rapid cancer progression and metastasis
- b.Proliferation of abnormal basophils and neutrophils
- c.Abnormal immature cells in the bone marrow
- d.Rapid proliferation of abnormal immature leukocytes
- e.Slow proliferation of abnormal mature leukocytes
- Drugs designed to be tubulin-binding agents that interfere with microtubule formation are most likely to…
- a.interfere with DNA repair mechanisms
- b.block protein synthesis
- c.prevent DNA polymerase binding
- d.be cell-cycle specific
- e.be purine analogs
- Cells that form tumors have lost…
- a.density-dependent inhibition
- b.the ability to divide
- c.control of the cell-cycle
- d.anchorage dependence
- e.Both A and B
- f.Both B and C
- g.Both C and D
- h.A, B, and C
- i.A, B, and D
- j.B, C, and D
- k.A, B, C, and D
please. im desperate, i usually do them on my own but this week was chaotic and i need to ensure 5/5 this time.