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The Islam people are also said to suffer in the hands of the Europeans, and this propelled them to also fight for their rights and for their people. Projects such as Al-Afghani emerged that aimed at unifying the Islam states (Kedourie, 1974). Such movements such as Al-Afghani were said to transform the Muslims from persons living under the divine law as required by Muhamad to shrewd persons that could fight for their rights (Kedourie, 1974). This marked a major suspicion on the concept of Islam theology and their way of life. In the introduction, the author also brings in the concept of civilization by arguing that the Europeans are simply ahead of the Muslims simply because of the civilization process.
In Rashid Ida’s Islam and the National Idea. the author responds to the question by arguing that Asabiyya aims at defending the Muslims from oppressors. The Muslims were also not allowed to support their relatives who were oppressors (Kedourie, 1974). Asabiyya also sought to impose aggression on Muslims especially in the course of hostility of its people (Kedourie, 1974). This explains that the Holy War was made an obligation for any Muslim in the course of an attack. In this chapter, Kedourie (1974) also writes that it is the duty of Muslims to defend persons of other religions that were under threat as per the Sharia rulings. The Muslim youth were also required to serve their homeland, and this would exalt them to other Muslim brothers in the world.
In the Excellences of the Arabs, the author outlines twenty six reasons why the Umm al-qura society has continually shown its preference for the Arabs peninsula. The reasons range from the peninsula being the origin of the light of the Islam, the Arabs of the Peninsula displaying unity especially since religion appeared to them to the Arabs being the oldest people that had the privilege of practicing consultation in public issues (Kedourie,