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In Serbia for instance DTM begun in the middle half of the 19th century while in Montenegro it begun during the initial periods of the last century.
DTM has five main stages. Stage one is linked to pre modern periods, and is essentially characterized by equilibrium between death rates and birth rates. The second stage perceives a growth in the population that results from a reduction in the death rates while the rates of birth remain considerably high. The third stage moves the population towards stability via a reduction in the birth rates. In essence, this shift contradicts Malthus’s conviction that alterations in the rates of death were the primary cause for population change. Stage four is essentially characterized by stability. Under this stage, the age structure of the population has become older (Hauser 1994). Stage five is the last stage of negative growth rates implying that the numbers of births are less in comparison to the number of deaths.
This stage is essentially characterized by a decrease in death rates that are as a result of two factors. increase in the food supply that come as a result of increased yields when agricultural practices were improved during the 18th century in the Agrarian revolution, and second, there were considerable improvements in the public health that lowered mortality, specifically in childhood.
Key factors that facilitated the move of these nations from one stage to another are essentially dependent on economic and social factors. For example improved education, and alteration in the role of women for example emancipation had a considerable impact on the population patterns because these are factors that directly affect the modes of living of the respective people in terms of enhanced healthcare and better diet.
There has been a faster decline in death rates. Nonetheless, these rapid improvements have taken place in areas where female literacy has been advocated for.