Complete 4 page APA formatted essay: Karyotyping (cellular chemistry).
DNA strands are systematically wound around several times over to permit storage without sacrificing the efficiency of regulated translation of the coded information into proteins, which are essential molecular components of biological processes (Gilbert 9). Defect in the highly-organized structure chromosomes will thus inhibit either the regulation of gene translation, or the translation process itself.
Karyotyping is the examination of chromosomes of a particular sample of cells to detect differences in the chromosomes’ number and structure. Cells may be obtained from amniotic fluid, blood, bone marrow, or placenta. As mentioned earlier, such aberrations manifests physically and functionally. For example, chromosomal aberration may affect fetal development, especially when the site of defect involves genes necessary for molding a child from a unicellular zygote. In such cases, either a couple cannot produce an offspring and continuously suffer miscarriages, or physical abnormalities and functional defects are evident after their baby is born. The abnormalities may manifest as soon as the baby has been delivered, or may take some time to be observed. In addition, chromosomal aberrations can also predispose someone to develop certain diseases, such as cancer (Chambers 2009).
When karyotyping was performed on a 28 year old male complaining of infertility, it was determined that he has an extra X chromosome, a condition known as Kleinfelter’s syndrome. This extra copy of X chromosome, specifically the genes that come with it, interferes with the proper function of testes in its production of viable sperm cells and testosterone. Each can exclusively cause the infertility experienced by the patient. Moreover, he might also have had small testes, large breasts, and reduced facial and body hair. The patient is also predisposed to developing breast cancer and systemic