Write 2 page essay on the topic CASE-CONTROL RESEARCH STUDY.
of Interest: The subjects recruited for the case study were exposed to trihalomethane, a by-product produced during the chlorination of water, which is done for the purpose of disinfection.
Patients who were histologically confirmed to have primary bladder cancer were recruited as the case population for the study and they were identified with the help of urologic services. The other inclusion criteria’s for the recruitment of the case population were: age group between 20 and 80 years and they must reside within the geographical area surrounding the hospital.
The study was a multi-center case-control study conducted in Spain and the subjects were recruited from 18 participating hospitals located at five different geographic regions in and around Spain. The cases were recruited through regular reviews of the discharge and pathology records in hospitals at by the research staffs who were involved in the study.
The number of cases who participated in the study was 338 out of the 1,457 eligible cases who were interviewed. However the article does not provide any information about the eligible subjects who were not part of the subjects. The reason for their non-participation has not been mentioned.
The control population was chosen from the same hospitals where the case subjects were recruited. The control group included patients who suffered from problems like hernias, orthopedic problems, circulatory disorders, and who were admitted to the hospital. Those who had problems that were related to the study were not chosen as controls. About 582 controls from 1,465 eligible controls were selected. Signed informed consents were obtained from both the case and control participants before onset of the study.
During the initial interview demographic information and familial, medical, including smoking history, and occupational history of all the eligible participants were collected using computer assisted software. The short listed case and control population were
Compose a 500 words essay on What does Sociology contribute to our understanding of health. Needs to be plagiarism free!
It observes ways in which communities, groups, and organisations, the forms of social structure, and other various social interactions and their effects on actions, attitudes, and opportunities. Basically, sociologists, along with many health professionals, maintain that illness and health are culturally and socially defined and they believe that human beings make choices which affect their health and well-being(Perry 2011) .
The gap presently between the poor and the rich, or rather the relations between factors such as health and social class have been of sociological importance since Marx’s work on capitalism. People belonging to higher social classes tend to enjoy better life chances, are more healthy and live relatively longer than those lower down the social scale. In other words, the better off people are more inclined to eating well and healthily. In the Third World and most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, vaccination programs are normally less effective than they should be because people have less food to eat and the diet is usually not balanced. Feeding well is the best way of preventing diseases (Timmermans & Haas 2008).
Early in the nineteenth century, a huge number of deaths were a result of what people called ‘the disease of poverty’ because most of those who perished were poor and suffered from malnutrition. In the twentieth century, however, “the diseases of poverty” have been replaced by what is now known as the diseases of affluence, where people eat too much of the wrong things. Eating foods that are high in cholesterol, smoking and drinking too much are just a number of causes of these lifestyle diseases.
Lifestyle choices for instance exercise and diet are considered key factors in whether a person is ill or healthy. The modern industrialised societies’ problems are not caused by too little food, but too much harmful or unhealthy food resulting to illnesses such as diabetes, stomach
Compose a 750 words essay on Underachievement Of Black Afro Caribbean Boys. Needs to be plagiarism free!
According to literature, boys’ underachievement is effectively analyzed when comparing the boy’s repetition in school, results of the girls, adult literacy and transitions to secondary school to that of the girls (Hickey, 2003).
There have been reports however from sub-Saharan Africa, within some countries of boys underachieving but is not mainly because of performing poorly but high dropouts. The fact that also girls are involved in underachievement clearly indicates that research is still developing.
Prove has indicated that reports which are considered reliable can be those from United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia (Lingard, 2003). Reports from these countries major on the increasing evidence of girls’ high scoring performance, compared to boys. OFSTED (1996), published ‘The Gender Divide: Performance Differences Between Boys and Girls at School’ in the United Kingdom, on the achievement of boys, the New Zealand Education Review Office published ‘Achievement of Boys’, (Aitken, 1999), and lastly in Australia a debate led to a report on ‘Boys: Getting it Right’ (House of Representatives, Standing Committee on Education and Training, 2002). These debates have finally led to programmes rising aimed at increasing the levels of achievement among the boys.
Underachievement can also be derived from the fact that boys are performing below the required limits (Martino & Pallotta-Chiarolli, 2003). This is evidenced by the information gathered after carrying out tests in some countries within the learning centers. Although this covers only some geographical areas, they help in analyzing the educational outcome of those areas.
I will pay for the following essay How has my writing changed in this semester why. The essay is to be 1 pages with three to five sources, with in-text citations and a reference page.
Consequently, I could not boast about great achievements in the beginning. however, I identified my weak points and developed clear goals I wanted to set. My motivation was warmed up by clear assignments, support and help of my mates and comprehensive teaching approach.
Now I feel more confident when it comes to writing due to the skills I improved during this course. I have understood the line between formal and informal writing. I avoid using personal pronouns in academic essays. What is even more important, I have learned more about essay and paragraph structures. I used to deliver my thoughts in mess but now I know that every essay should have distinctive introduction, main body and conclusion. It is difficult to underestimate the contribution of my peers to my learning process. Peer-review process showed me how other people perceive what I wrote. It helped me to spot and correct my mistakes, reorganize my paragraphs and avoid meaningless sentences in writing. I started writing on the point, giving more examples, relating abstract things to real life
How do you draw a Lewis dot structure for molecules that have more than one mole? For example, 2H2O or 2O2? Is it just the same thing as a single mole of that molecule or does it affect the Lewis dot structure?
Complete 5 page APA formatted essay: Give it any topic based off 5 topics.
ase in the pollution of the air and this in turn has produced many unwanted results which have affected not only the environment but also human health (Park 2007, Jeremy et al 2010). According to the statistics of the World Health Organization in the year 2008, every year 2 million deaths can be attributed to air pollution. Not only this, air pollution has been linked to many health problems of the human beings and it has resulted in alterations in the atmosphere and led to environmental problems like global warming. This has called for the implementation of strategies to overcome the issue of air pollution so that the unwanted affects of this form of pollution can be overcome. It can also be analyzed that the reduction in the air pollution will result in the reduction of the health hazards that it poses. This paper will serve to explain the different causes of air pollution along with the different impacts that it lays on the environment and the human beings. It will further elaborate the methods that can be employed to overcome this issue.
Air forms the environment of the earth with which all living beings are in direct contact. It is essential for the survival of all living beings and the existence of life on this planet is not possible without air. The transmission of sound is only possible through air and it is also a source of the major gases which are essential for the survival of living beings. It is a mixture of different gases which include mainly nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide and the percentage of these gases in the air is 78.1, 20.93 and 0.03 respectively. It has many essential functions which can be explained by the fact that survival processes which include respiration and combustion cannot occur in the absence of air. The close contact between the air and the human beings can be used as the basis to explain the fact that contamination of this air can have affects on the health of the living beings. The pollution of air can be defined as the
Complete 4 page APA formatted essay: Analyse Hitlers speech.
Correctly estimating the Western Power’s reluctance to face another war, Hitler combined a series of brilliant and opportunistic strategic alliances with bold territorial acquisitions to further his aims. In 1935, Hitler began the remilitarization of Germany. This was endorsed by Great Britain, which entered into the Anglo-German Naval agreement of 1936. In the same year, Hitler formed the Axis with Italy and Japan. He exploited the resentment of the German public towards what they considered to be the unfair terms of the Treaty of Versailles to carry them along with him. A long series of provocative measures, such as Germany’s annexation of the Rhineland in March 1936, the takeover of Austria in the Anschluss of March 1938 and the annexation of the Sudetenland in September 1938, culminated in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 (History World web site, n.d.). In the course of all these rapidly unfolding developments, Poland remained a crucial factor in Hitler’s calculations. The document under study is an extract from the text of the speech given by Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag, or German Parliament, on 28 April 1939.
Hitler’s tone regarding German-Polish relations is belligerent in the extreme. He begins by invoking the German perception of the unfairness of the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I. According to the terms of this treaty, the German Army and Navy were limited to a token force and her Air Force was completely disbanded. Germany’s colonies were appropriated by the victorious Allies as the spoils of war. War reparations of 33 billion dollars were imposed on Germany. These terms rankled in the German psyche and were exploited by Hitler to drum up public support for his aggressive policies. A very contentious issue was the establishment of a Polish Corridor which provided Poland with access to the Baltic Sea, by linking Poland to
Compose a 750 words essay on Please give me a suitable topic of this . Thank you. Needs to be plagiarism free!
that teenagers can still get bad influence from those above the statutory age, I support the claim that curfews do not help keep teens away from trouble.
According to an article that explores effects curfew laws have on youths, less is evident about the positive impacts. The article states that researches who have tried to analyze the effects of curfews on reducing crime have relied on assumptions and not facts (Kline 2). Many cities in the United States have put in place curfews for teenagers following the 1990s when crime cases amongst the teenagers seemed to be on the rise. This measure therefore aimed at ensuring safety amongst them. These curfews are however usually applicable to teens who are under a specific stated age. As much as it may reduce crime amongst those under the stated age, it will have no implication on kids just above the statutory age hence they will continue with their criminal behaviors (Kline 1). They will be able to influence the teenagers who will disobey the curfews and indulge in crime. This article therefore proves that setting curfews for teenagers is not a solution to the increased crimes amongst teenagers in the cities. A proper solution therefore should not direct to the teenagers alone but the youth in general.
According to an article in Greater Greater Washington titled as ‘Teens need things to do, not curfews’, curfews have worked effectively on other cities and have been able to reduce the number of crimes amongst teenagers (Reed). The article however bring its claims stating that many feel curfews are too restrictive for the teenagers and that they do not eradicative the root cause of crime amongst the teenagers. The main cause of misbehavior amongst the teenagers as per this article is lack of appropriate things to do. Therefore, they keep themselves busy by indulging in criminal activities. This article brings forth the fact that teenagers living in cities that have set curfews, tend to move to other urban centers
Create a 2 page essay paper that discusses Why bioinformatics and proteomic application essential in the diagnosis of complex disease such as cancer.
However, the article’s limitation is that it does not clearly distinguish the number of females and males plus kids in the study.
Martin, J., Regad, L., Etchebest, C., & Camproux, A. (2008). Taking advantage of local structure descriptors to analyze interresidue contacts in protein structures and protein complexes. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 73(3), 672-689. 3-Duh, Q. (2004)
It is noteworthy that the article first describes cancer as caused by the alteration of not only the proteome, but also a genome. These changes inculcate the ability to evade normal cellular control mechanism on cancer cells hence prompting its uncontrolled growth. The article further demonstrates that prior to the efforts of scientists. cancer is controllable to some extent, or even totally if detected at its early stages. Considerably, among the several individuals who were interviewed on the same, are concluded to be ignorant. It emerged that the respondents sought the medical attention upon developing the symptoms of the disorder. However, the limitation of the article is that it does not illustrate perfectly the reason to why patients usually seek medical help at a later stage of cancer.
The importance of bioinformatics in cancer disease is highlighted in this article. Bioinformatics is the study of predictive molecular signatures also called biomarkers. Biomarkers are a form of molecules whose occurrence indicates the pedigree of several diseases. This is a point where the scientists started to explore in their quest to find a limiting factor to this terrible disease. It is imperative that the author of this article did not highlight on the details of the biomarkers, thus, the arguments are limited. The author alludes that the biomarkers have been discovered to limit the severity of the disease in human body.
The above article states that, since the growth of cancer portrays a form of multi-scale process, which is dominated by an invariable that exudes
Need an argumentative essay on Discuss the validity of the following assertion: Without the cooperation of the French, American victory in the Revolution would not have been possible. Needs to be 1 pages. Please no plagiarism.
The French provided the Americans with ships as well as soldiers during the American war for independence. otherwise known as the Revolutionary War. In addition, the French engaged the British in wars for various British colonies in the world. This meant that the British had to send valuable manpower away from the revolutionary war in the new world, where they were urgently needed (Tindal and Shi 620). A battle in which American and French soldiers fought side by side was the battle for York town. The French engaged the British soldiers on land and stopped them from progressing further.
The blockade in Yorktown could not have been actionable without the assistance of a fleet. The only nation that volunteered a fleet to the Americans who had none was France. The French did not only contribute manpower and the fleet but also assisted the American army with critical supplies. The thirteen colonies, which then made the American nation, would not have been able to win the war without financial supplies as