Black History Since 1847.
Black History Since 1847
“Black Codes” is the name given to the laws used and passed by the southern governments founded during the reign of President Andrew Johnson. These laws restricted the rights given to the black people living in the U.S between the period of 1865 and 1866. The laws were intent and targeted the newly freed slaves. Additionally, the ex-slaves were not allowed to sit on panels, limited their rights to vote and testify against the white men, as well as only allowed them to work in specific occupations with low wages.
The Grandfather Clause was a constitutional mechanism, which was passed by seven southern states to deny the right to vote or suffrage to the African Americans. This legal mechanism was passed during the reconstruction where the African Americans who had enjoyed the right to vote before the year 1867 or their direct descendants would be exempted from property, educational, or tax necessities required for voting. This reduced the participation of the black men in American politics since they were not permitted to vote even after meeting the requirements.
White Primaries were the name given to primary elections held in the southern states of the U.S. within which any non-white individual was not allowed to participate. The white primaries were founded in a majority of the southern states between the period of 1890 and 1944. The Supreme Court viewed it as constitutional, but termed the white primaries as violating the Constitution, a decade later. This device was created to keep the African Americans from participating in American politics because many parties adopted it to ensure that they were exempted from party membership.
The Homestead Act was the name given to federal laws used to allocate an applicant a piece of land, which was referred to as ‘homestead’ at a low or no cost. This act was introduced to support the Free Soil policy, which was used by the Northerners to ensure that farmers possess their own land. The initial Homestead Act was established in 1862 and assented into American law by President Abraham Lincoln, in the same year. The act was also intended to address the land ownership inequalities within the southern states during reconstruction.
The Gilded Age was the era between the periods of 1870s to the 20th century that was characterized by enormous economic growth. The growth was especially realized in the West, and the Northern states of the U.S. economic advancement attracted immigrants from Europe. This period is also characterized by poverty being rife since the average annual income for the vast majority was 380 dollars. The major industries operating in this period included the factory system, labor unions, and mining fields. The most commonly known depressions, panic of 1893 and panic of 1873, were experienced during this era.
Social Darwinism is a term coined during the 19th century. The main idea was that human beings, similar to plants and animals, compete for existence, which results in the survival of the fittest. The term was coined during the late Victorian era in several places including England and the U.S. This theory claimed that the strong should survive while the weak were referred to as the unfit and should be left to die. The term was used in several theories during the 1870s. For instance, it applied biological concepts in politics, economics, and sociology.