Bayer AG was indicted as a participant in an international price-fixing scheme that drove up the costs of rubber chemicals used to make shoes, tires,…

Bayer AG was indicted as a participant in an international price-fixing scheme that drove up the costs of rubber chemicals used to make shoes, tires, and other products. Bayer AG paid its fine but did not admit culpability. Instead, the company announced that paying the fine was less costly than litigation. Bayer AG implemented a(n) ____ strategy.